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Population Briefs

New Study Provides First Global Accounting of Urban Water Sources and Stress

New Study Provides First Global Accounting of Urban Water Sources and Stress

Most current and nearly all future population growth in the developing world will occur in cities. As cities become more populated, they will need more water. Today, many cities are "water stressed"—defined as currently using at least 40 percent of available water.

However, the news is not all grim. A new study, the first to accurately estimate global urban water sources and water stress in large cities, has found that past analyses substantially overestimated water stress

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Population Briefs

Client and Provider Perspectives on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Services in India

Client and Provider Perspectives on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Services in India

The Government of India has opened more than 6,000 adolescent-friendly health clinics across the country to increase services, particularly reproductive health services, for young people. However, few young people have used the services. In the Youth in India study, conducted in 2010 by the International Institute for Population Sciences and Population Council, just seven percent of young men and three percent of young women reported ever receiving information on sexual matters from a health care provider. To understand the reasons for this circumstance, and to assist clinics in meeting the needs of intended clients, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare asked the Population Council to assess the clinics from the perspectives of young people and health care providers in three states in India (Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan).

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Population Briefs

New Insight into Sexuality, Gender Issues, and Gender-based Violence in South Asia

Interest in sexuality, domestic violence, and gender inequities in South Asia has surged over the past 15 years, partly due to several high profile cases of rape and other gender-based violence. However, many aspects of these complex topics—from men’s and women’s concepts of masculinity and sexuality to changing patterns of gender roles and the nature of violence—are still only partially understood.

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Population Briefs

Meeting the Needs of Adolescent Girls: Using Research to Develop and Implement Programs that Improve Girls’ Lives

Meeting the Needs of Adolescent Girls: Using Research to Develop and Implement Programs that Improve Girls’ Lives
Photo credit: Population Council

In Zambia, Population Council researchers are implementing and evaluating the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP) using a randomized control trial, in order to provide strong evidence of the intervention’s impact. AGEP will enroll 10,000 poor adolescent girls and address their social isolation, economic vulnerability, and lack of access to vital health services.

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Population Briefs

The Influence of Rural Women’s Autonomy on Marital Violence in Four Indian States

The Influence of Rural Women’s Autonomy on Marital Violence in Four Indian States
Photo credit: Population Council

There is evidence that women in India who have more education than their husbands, who earn more, or who are the sole earners in their families have a higher likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) than women who are not employed or who are less educated than their spouse. However, recent Population Council research found women’s autonomy to be correlated with less IPV in some regions.

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Population Briefs

Ensuring that Family Planning Programs Respect, Protect, and Fulfill Women’s Rights

Ensuring that Family Planning Programs Respect, Protect, and Fulfill Women’s Rights
Photo credit: Population Council

In the developing world, 222 million women would like to delay or avoid pregnancy but are not using modern contraceptives. At the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning, the international community made a commitment to reduce this unmet need by reaching 120 million women and girls from the world’s poorest countries with voluntary access to family planning information, contraceptives, and services by 2020, an agreement known as FP2020.

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Population Briefs

Preclinical Study Shows Microbicide Gel’s Effectiveness Against HIV and Other Viruses

Preclinical Study Shows Microbicide Gel’s Effectiveness Against HIV and Other Viruses
Photo credit: Population Council

Results of a recent animal study offer new optimism for microbicides, biomedical products being developed to protect people against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Population Council scientists and their partners have found that a proprietary microbicide gel developed by the Council is safe, stable, and can prevent the transmission of HIV, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV), in both the vagina and rectum in animals. It has a window of efficacy in the vagina against all three viruses of at least eight hours prior to exposure. An in vitro study also provides the first data that the gel is effective against multiple strains of HIV.

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Population Briefs

Estimating the Size of Key Populations in Nairobi, Kenya

Estimating the Size of Key Populations in Nairobi, Kenya
Photo credit: Ivan Mateev

A team of researchers, including three from the Population Council, have developed estimates of the sizes of three key populations at risk for HIV infection in Nairobi, Kenya: men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs. These estimates are among the first solid data on the size of these populations in Nairobi, providing practitioners with evidence to inform the development of programs that meet the needs of these vulnerable groups.

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Population Briefs

Reducing Unmet Need for Contraception: Helping Women to Continue Effective Use

Reducing Unmet Need for Contraception: Helping Women to Continue Effective Use
Photo credit: Population Council

In the developing world, 222 million women would like to delay or avoid pregnancy, but are not using modern contraception. At the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning, the development community committed to reducing this unmet need for modern contraception by reaching 120 million women and girls from 69 of the world’s poorest countries with voluntary access to family planning information, contraceptives, and services by 2020, an agreement known as FP2020. In a recent study, Population Council researchers recommend a promising strategy for reducing unmet need for modern contraception. Rather than focusing solely on reaching women who have never used contraception, the researchers suggested providing better information and services to support women who already use contraceptives, and making it easier for those who previously used contraception to resume use.

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