Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study
This six-round longitudinal study aims to identify critical aspects of school quality that put adolescents who face the dual challenges of poverty and HIV/AIDS on a safer, healthier, and more productive path to adulthood. Our research seeks to uncover those aspects of schooling that will lead to more protective behaviors and lower HIV risk among young men and women.
In advance of the second round of data collection, we held a dissemination workshop in Liwonde in early May 2008 with local stakeholders actively involved with education policy and practice in Malawi. Preliminary study results from the first round of data collection were reviewed, a comparative perspective of the importance of school quality in understanding adolescent outcomes and transitions to adulthood in developing countries was presented, and participants discussed future study plans and objectives.
The second round of data collection took place between May and July 2008. All 59 primary schools were revisited in the second term of the school year. The original sample of adolescents aged 14–16 at the beginning of 2007 were 15–17 at the start of 2008. Of the original sample (1,764 in-school and 886 out-of-school), 1,674 in-school and 739 out-of-school adolescents were re-interviewed in 2008. These numbers represent a re-interview rate of 95% and 83%, respectively, and 91% overall. The re-interview rate was higher than expected, particularly for the in-school sample; the differential in follow-up by schooling status was expected as out-of-school adolescents are more mobile and more likely to migrate for employment. Supplementary funding from the Hewlett Foundation enabled interviewers to travel to other districts and cities to track down adolescents who were not immediately found at their 2007 location, which aided in reducing the loss to follow-up and in collecting data on migrants. Adolescents were asked about changes in their household, educational attainment, schooling experiences, labor force participation, sexual behavior, marriage, and health since the previous year. The set of literacy and mathematical assessments was expanded to assess more accurately the skills and knowledge acquired during their school years.
Approximately 325 head teachers and teachers for standards 4–8 also were interviewed at each school, a substantial proportion of whom were interviewed in 2007. A school facilities instrument collected information about the physical condition of the classrooms, offices, and toilet facilities at each of the primary schools.
|Round 1||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4||Round 5||Round 6 and beyond|
Location: Malawi (Balaka and Machinga districts)
Poverty, Gender, and Youth
Duration: 1/2007 - 4/2015
Ann Biddlecom (Alan Guttmacher Institute)
Chris Sudfeld (Invest in Knowledge/Harvard Humanitarian Initiative)
Johanna Rankin (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)
Joseph P.G. Chimombo (CERT, University of Malawi, Zomba)
Linda Kalilani-Phiri (College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre)
Monica J. Grant (Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin)
Mphatso Mwpasa (Invest in Knowledge, Malawi)
Newton Kumwenda (Malawi College of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Research Project, Blantyre)
Peter C. Fleming (Invest in Knowledge, Malawi)
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
The Spencer Foundation
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
UK Department for International Development