Induction of neutralising antibodies restricts the use of human granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor for vaccine studies in rhesus macaques
Eisenblatter,Martin; Stahl-Hennig,Christiane; Kuate,Seraphin; Stolte,Nicole; Jasny,Edith; Hahn,Helmut; Pope,Melissa; Tenner-Racz,Klara; Racz,Paul; Steinman,Ralph M.; Uberla,Klaus; Ignatius,Ralf
Vaccine 22(25-26): 3295-3302
Publication date: 2004
Granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a valuable adjuvant to enhance induction of cellular immune responses in rodents. Less information is available regarding its use as an adjuvant in primates or humans. We explored recombinant human GM-CSF for potential vaccine studies in rhesus macaques and focused on its effect on peripheral monocytes as progenitors of dendritic cells and its potential immunogenicity. Application of human GM-CSF to nine animals led to an average 32-fold increase in monocyte numbers. This was not observed upon re-treatment, which coincided with GM-CSF-specific neutralising antibodies. These also neutralised the activity of rhesus macaque GM-CSF. The data underscore the need to use species-specific GM-CSF for immunomodulation in primates.