China's local and national fertility policies at the end of the twentieth century
Gu,Baochang; Feng,Wang; Zhigang,Guo; Erli,Zhang
Population and Development Review 33(1): 129-147
Publication date: 2007
China's fertility policy, a national priority for over two decades, has evolved to contain highly localized features, yet variation in fertility policy implementation by locality has not been well documented. Using data collected at China's 420 prefecture-level administrative units, this study provides a quantitative summary of fertility policy implementation and examines the localized nature of fertility policymaking in China during the late 1990s. The findings indicate that China's fertility policy encompasses much geographic and demographic variation. Nevertheless, the one-child policy remains a core element and exerts a substantial impact on China's demographic processes. The average total fertility rate targeted by current fertility policies for China as a whole (the "policy fertility") is estimated at 1.47 at the end of the 1990s, a rate far below the replacement level.