Journal Article

High uptake of HIV testing in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India: Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection

We report baseline findings from a longitudinal cohort study to examine HIV incidence, high-risk injection and sexual behaviors of 3,792 male injection drug users (IDUs) in Delhi. The majority (95.4%) accepted HIV testing; HIV prevalence was 21.9%. In multivariate analysis, belonging to states adjacent to Delhi (AOR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07–1.52), earning INR 500–1,500 (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.43–3.96); duration of drug use 2–5 years (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.09–3.73), 6–10 years (AOR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.55–5.11), ≥11 years (AOR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.84–6.11); prior HIV testing (AOR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.35–1.91), self-reported risky-injection behavior (AOR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.33–1.92), and utilization of harm-reduction services (AOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11–1.58) were positively associated with HIV infection. Alcohol use ≤2 times/week (AOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.55–0.82) or ≥3 times/week (AOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54–1.01), unit increase in age (AOR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98–1.00), ≥7 years of schooling (AOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66–1.02) and unsafe sex with any female partner (AOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55–0.86) were negatively associated with HIV infection. HIV prevalence remains high among male IDUs in Delhi. HIV prevention programs should include comprehensive package of services for IDUs.