Providing targeted, effective HIV treatment, care, and support is a global priority, but questions about the best way to do this remain unanswered. Many patients do not receive the recommended standard of care because health systems are not equipped to provide it, or because stigma and discrimination or the cost of care prevents individuals from seeking it. Council research is identifying populations most in need of services, determining which services are most useful, and developing cost-effective means to ensure that these services reach those who need them.
Our research on the social, economic, and institutional factors that increase people’s vulnerability to HIV has helped improve the conduct of research among hard-to-reach populations, strengthened community health systems, and improved services for vulnerable populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The Council is using operations research to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of HIV care and support programs in more than 10 countries to identify the most cost-effective ways to provide high-quality care on a large scale. Past Council research has assessed the feasibility of free, home-based HIV self-testing for health workers in Kenya, for whom HIV is an occupational risk but who often do not seek HIV services because of fear of stigma and lack of confidentiality.