The Population Council has a long history of providing training and mentorship for young professionals in public health, social science, and biomedical research. Fellowships strengthen the capacity of students and professionals around the world to identify, investigate, and address problems in their own countries. The work of Council fellows has shaped population and health policies and programs and contributed to the development of cutting-edge products for contraception and HIV prevention. Notable former Population Council fellows include Philippine “National Scientist” Mercedes B. Concepción, Center of Latin American Demographic Studies director Carmen A. Miró, and former UNFPA executive director Babatunde Osotimehin.

Currently the Council's biomedical fellowship program provides opportunities for advanced training in biomedical research at the Council’s Center for Biomedical Research in New York City.