Journal Article

Associations between violence in school and at home and education outcomes in rural Malawi: A longitudinal analysis

Growing evidence of the prevalence of school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) has raised concerns about negative effects on education. Previous quantitative research on this topic has been limited by descriptive and cross-sectional data. Using longitudinal data from the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study, we investigate associations between school and domestic violence and three education outcomes: absenteeism, learning, and dropout. Half of respondents had experienced both SRGBV and domestic violence by ages 18–21. Associations between violence and education were mixed: school-related sexual violence was associated with poorer subsequent education outcomes for males and, to a lesser extent, for females; domestic violence was associated with higher absenteeism for males and subsequent dropout for females; and physical violence was associated with lower absenteeism and better subsequent numeracy performance for females. Additional longitudinal research is needed and should integrate a broad understanding of the influence of gender norms and experiences of violence on young people’s educational success.