The COVID-19 pandemic is evolving fast and affecting rich and poor countries; however, the social determinants of the infections, deaths, and recoveries have not been well characterized. While there is increasing discussion of COVID-19 socio-demographics in the media, no systematic compilation of data exists that synthesizes what and how official reporting platforms disaggregate socio-demographic information of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of what and how federal and local health officials report COVID-19 cases. Having this information nationally and sub-nationally can help health officials to deploy a more targeted response effort—such as testing, treatment, and contact tracing. This information could be useful for future vaccine development. This data review can reveal gaps in our public health data system, which can lead to recommendations on how to improve data standardization, disaggregation, and reporting, particularly for tracking outbreaks. This protocol may be replicated in other countries to understand how socio-demographic factors are being reported and their relationship to COVID-19 cases.