Over the last forty years, Europe has experienced a new migratory flow: entry into Mediterranean countries, including Italy. The first part of the twenty-first century saw an immigration boom, and then subsequently, in the years of economic crisis that followed, an immigration bust, accompanied by a revival of emigration abroad. We show how this “stop and go” of migrants in recent years is due to demographic and labor market structural changes and the inability (or unwillingness) of public authorities to manage entries from and exits to abroad. Moreover, several particularities of Italian society have shaped foreigner presence in Italy, in ways different than those seen in central and northern Europe. We distinguish also between the Center/North and the South/Islands regions of Italy, as the migratory histories of these two areas are quite different.
Published in a peer-reviewed journal of the Population Council.