Reproductive coercion (RC) and intimate partner violence (IPV) are prevalent forms of gender-based violence (GBV) associated with reduced female control over contraceptive use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Although the World Health Organization has recommended the identification and support of GBV survivors within health services, few clinic-based models have been shown to reduce IPV or RC, particularly in low or middle-income countries (LMICs). To date, clinic-based GBV interventions have not been shown to reduce RC or unintended pregnancy in LMIC settings.
ARCHES (Addressing Reproductive Coercion in Health Settings) is a single-session, clinic-based model delivered within routine contraceptive counseling that has been demonstrated to reduce RC in the United States. ARCHES was adapted to the Kenyan context via a participatory process to reduce GBV and unintended pregnancy among women and girls seeking contraceptive services in this setting. Core elements of ARCHES include enhanced contraceptive counseling that addresses RC, opportunity for patient disclosure of RC and IPV (and subsequent warm referral to local services), and provision of a palm-sized educational booklet.
A matched-pair cluster control trial is being conducted to assess whether the ARCHES intervention (treatment condition), as compared to standard-of-care contraceptive counseling (control condition), reduces RC and IPV, and improves contraceptive outcomes for woman and girls of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) seeking contraceptive services from community-based clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. All six clinics were assigned to intervention-control pairs based on similarities in patient volume and demographics, physical structure and neighborhood context. Survey data will be collected from patients immediately prior to their clinic visit (baseline, T1), immediately after their clinic visit (exit), and at 3- and 6-months post-visit (T2 and T3, respectively).
This study is the first to assess the efficacy of an adaptation of the ARCHES model to reduce GBV and improve reproductive health outside of the U.S., and one of only a small number of controlled trials to assess reductions in GBV associated with a clinic-based program in an LMIC context. Evidence from this trial will inform health system efforts to reduce GBV, and to enhance female contraceptive control and reproductive health in Kenya and globally.