Journal Article

Spatio-temporal patterns of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in relation to drinking water salinity at the district level in Bangladesh from 2016 to 2018

This analysis examines whether salinity in drinking water is associated with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE/E), a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Bangladesh’s national health information system data were extracted at the district level (n = 64) to assess PE/E rates, and these were overlaid with three environmental measures approximating drinking water salinity, remotely sensed low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ), monthly rainfall data, and electrical conductivity of groundwater (i.e., water salinity). Results from a negative binomial fixed effects model suggest PE/E rates are higher with less rainfall (dry season), lower population density, and that district level rates of PE/E increase with higher groundwater salinity and in the high risk LECZ category closest to the coast. Results suggest that drinking water salinity may be associated with PE/E and that using national health surveillance data can improve understanding of this association. This approach can potentially be leveraged in the future to inform targeted interventions to high risk regions and times.